If you are asking if AMS has an "Article Icon" feature like the XenForo Resource Manager has, the answer is no (altho, that feature is used in AMS for Series Icon).
AMS has what I call a "Cover Image" feature (which is mainly used for Layout Types). The "Cover Image" is used in various places through out AMS (mainly on list pages like Search Results, Tags Results, Index pages, Category Pages etc). How its used is different based on the CONTEXT (are you asking specifically about using LIST VIEW LAYOUT on AMS Index, because the answer would be different than if asking about the Tags Results listing page (or Find New etc etc etc).
If an Article does NOT have any image attachments uploaded to it, then the system will check to see if the Category that the Article is owned by has a Category Image (and if it does, it will use that as the Articles "Cover Image".
It goes even DEEPER in that if an Article does not have a cover image set, nor is it in a category that has a category image, it will check to see if the Article is associated with a SERIES and if the Series has a Series Icon (if so, it will use that as the Article "Cover Image" were applicable.
If NONE of that applies, then in same cases, the Article Authors AVATAR will be used (not in all cases tho). Layouts like LIST VIEW are able to use the Authors Avatar, however, Layouts like Tile View and Grid View can not use the Avatar, so a background color will be used instead.
Order of Precidence is...
Article Cover Image
Category Content Image
Author Avatar (OR Background Color in places that can't use the Avatar because its too small/not appropriate).
I'd suggest making sure you add Category Content Images for all of your categories so that any Articles that do not have "Cover Images", will at least have a nice Category Image to display in its place vs either Avatar or Background color.